SAMHSA Prescription Drug Abuse Weekly Update
Issue 147  |  November 5, 2015
The Prevention of Prescription Drug Abuse in the Workplace (PAW) TA Center addresses prescription drug abuse—a growing public health problem with increasing burdens on workers, workplaces, and our economy. To subscribe colleagues, family members, or friends to this listserv sponsored by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), please click here or send their e-mail addresses to
Table of Content Featured Article Journal Articles and Reports Professional Education and Policy Debate National Marijuana International Northeast/Mid-Atlantic News South News Midwest News West News Other Resources Grant Awards Grant Announcements Take-Back Events and drop boxes Upcoming Conferences and Workshops


Seven Ways Pharmacists Will Participate in White House Campaign Against Drug Abuse
Meghan Ross, Pharmacy Times
October 23, 2015

Pharmacies and pharmacists have pledged support for President Obama’s campaign against prescription drug misuse. Commitments include 1) the National Community Pharmacists Association will distribute among their more than 62,000 pharmacists inserts about naloxone and safe drug disposal; 2) the American Pharmacists Association will use its resource center on opioid use, misuse, and abuse to educate its more than 250,000 members; 3) the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists will provide its 40,000 members with training and resources; 4) the National Association of Boards of Pharmacy will increase access to prescription drug monitoring program data among more pharmacists in Arizona, Delaware, Kentucky, and North Dakota; 5) the National Association of Chain Drug Stores will continue to educate its 125 member companies (and their 175,000 pharmacists) about opioid overdoses and naloxone; 6) CVS Health next year will allow its pharmacists in 20 more states (in addition to the existing 14 states) to dispense naloxone without a prescription and its pharmacists will talk to high school students about the dangers of drug abuse; and 7) Rite Aid will expand its naloxone dispensing and train 6,000 pharmacists next year on naloxone use.

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Prescription Misuse Workplace Awareness Campaign Materials
A Dose of Reality by GenerationRx
Accessed October 28, 2015

Employers can increase workplace productivity and reduce health insurance costs associated with prescription drug misuse by raising employees’ awareness about the issue. This set of downloadable files, some customizable, includes: newsletter/online communication, poster/handouts, wallet card, table top sign, postcard, fact sheet, and a five-point strategy. These materials emphasize being “a safe and responsible consumer of medications.”

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Journal Articles and Reports

T.J. Cicero, M.S. Ellis, and J. Harney. 2015. “Shifting Patterns of Prescription Opioid and Heroin Abuse in the United States.” New England Journal of Medicine 373(18):1789–90, doi: 10.1056/NEJMc1505541.

A survey of DSM–4 opioid-dependent patients entering non-methadone-maintenance treatment in the United State drew 15,227 responses in January 2008 through September 2014. Rates of exclusive prescription opioid abuse in the month prior to treatment entry remained stable at 70percent from 2008 through 2010; rates then decreased steadily to less than 50 percent in 2014. Conversely, concurrent abuse of both heroin and prescription opioids in the previous month increased from 24 percent in 2008 to 42 percent in 2014. Although the exclusive use of heroin was low in this population, it more than doubled from 4 percent in 2008 to 9 percent in 2014. The Northeast showed the most striking shifts in patterns of misuse. The West followed closely behind, with concurrent heroin and prescription opioid misuse surpassing exclusive prescription opioid misuse in 2014. The Midwest and South followed similar trends, with exclusive prescription opioid misuse most prevalent in the South. Among a convenience sample of 267 participants, half misused prescription opioids before trying heroin and 73 percent cited factors such as cost and ease of access when explaining why they began using heroin.

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C.J. Jolley, J. Bell, G.F. Rafferty, J. Moxham, and J. Strang. 2015. “Understanding Heroin Overdose: A Study of the Acute Respiratory Depressant Effects of Injected Pharmaceutical Heroin.” PLOS One 10(10), doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0140995.

This study in the United Kingdom analyzed the time course and severity of acute-opioid-induced respiratory depression. Ten patients (9 of 10 with chronic airflow obstruction), who underwent supervised injectable opioid treatment for heroin addiction, received their usual prescribed dose of injectable opioid (diamorphine or methadone) and then their usual prescribed dose of oral opioid (methadone or sustained release oral morphine) after 30 minutes. Increases in end-tidal CO2% indicated significant respiratory depression following injection in 8 of 10 patients at 30 minutes. In contrast, pulse oximetry indicated significant respiratory depression in only 4 of 10 patients, with small absolute changes at 30 minutes. A decline in neural respiratory drive from baseline to 30 minutes post injection was not statistically significant.

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E.D. Kharasch, K.J. Regina, J. Blood, and C. Friedel. 2015. “Methadone Pharmacogenetics: CYP2B6 Polymorphisms Determine Plasma Concentrations, Clearance, and Metabolism.” Anesthesiology 123(5):1142–53, doi:10.1097/ALN.0000000000000867.

This study assessed methadone clearance by genotype. Sixty-five healthy volunteers spread across six CYP2B6 genotypes received single doses of intravenous and oral methadone. Average S-methadone apparent oral clearance was 35 percent and 45 percent lower in CYP2B6*1/*6 and CYP2B6*6/*6 genotypes, respectively, compared with CYP2B6*1/*1. R-methadone apparent oral clearance was 25 percent and 35 percent lower in CYP2B6*1/*6 and CYP2B6*6/*6 genotypes, respectively, compared with CYP2B6*1/*1. R- and S-methadone apparent oral clearance was threefold and fourfold greater in CYP2B6*4 carriers. Intravenous and oral R- and S-methadone metabolism was significantly lower in CYP2B6*6 carriers compared with CYP2B6*1 and greater in CYP2B6*4 carriers. Methadone metabolism and clearance were lower in African Americans, in part, because of the CYP2B6*6 genetic polymorphism.

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M.G. Landreat, C. Rozaire, J.Y. Guillet, C.V. Vigneau, J.Y. Le Reste, and M.G. Bronnec. 2015. “French Experience With Buprenorphine: Do Physicians Follow the Guidelines?” PLOS One 10(10), doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0137708.

An online survey of 542 French physicians, with a 44-percent response rate, found that 42 percent of independent family physicians who work outside of France’s national healthcare system had prescribed buprenorphine as a first-time prescription and 40 percent did not follow up with patients on buprenorphine. Responding physicians rarely took into account the guidelines regarding buprenorphine prescription.

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E. Liakoni, M.P. Schaub, L.J. Maier, G–V. Glauser, and M.E. Liechti. 2015. “The Use of Prescription Drugs, Recreational Drugs, and ‘Soft Enhancers’ for Cognitive Enhancement Among Swiss Secondary School Students.” PLOS One 10(10), doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0141289.

An online survey of 1,139 Swiss students ages 16–24 found that 9.2 percent had misused prescription drugs at least once for cognitive enhancement. The survey also assessed a range of other cognitive enhancers (coffee, for example). The most common motives for use were to stay awake and improve concentration. Use was more prevalent among students who reported higher levels of stress or performance pressure and students with psychiatric disorders.

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R. Miech, L. Johnston, P.M. O’Malley, K.M. Keyes, and K. Heard. 2015. “Prescription Opioids in Adolescence and Future Opioid Misuse.” Pediatrics, doi:10.1542/peds.2015–1364.

An analysis of Monitoring the Future panel data on 6,220 students, who were surveyed in 12th grade in 1990–2012 and were followed through age 23 (except the most recent cohort), found that prescribed opioid use before high school graduation was associated with a 33 percent increase in the risk of opioid misuse after high school, with risks higher for students with little to no history of drug use and strong disapproval of illegal drug use at baseline.

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M.A. Parker and J.C. Anthony. 2015. “Epidemiological Evidence on Extramedical Use of Prescription Pain Relievers: Transitions From Newly Incident Use to Dependence Among 12- to 21-Year-Olds in the United States Using Meta-Analysis, 2002–13.” PeerJ 3:e1340.

An analysis of 2002–13 National Survey on Drug Use and Health data from respondents ages 12–21 found that peak risk of starting nonmedical opioid use and developing an opioid use disorder in the same year is at ages 14–15, somewhat earlier than peak risk of starting nonmedical use at ages 16–19.

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E. Wittenberg, J.W. Bray, B. Aden, A. Gebremariam, B. Nosyk, and B.R. Schackman. 2015. “Measuring Benefits of Opioid Misuse Treatment for Economic Evaluation: Health-Related Quality of Life of Opioid Dependent Individuals and Their Spouses as Assessed by a Sample of the U.S. Population.” Addiction, doi: 10.1111/add.13219.

This study used a December 2013 through January 2014 Internet survey of 2,054 nationally representative paid survey panel members (57 percent of those invited to participate) to estimate quality-of-life (utility) loss associated with opioid misuse and medication-assisted therapy. The study applied the “standard gamble” technique to vignettes, asking people to state what risk of death they would face to avoid a health problem or (separately) a spouse’s health problem. Relative to perfect health, mean utility losses were 42.6 percent for active injection opioid misuse, 30.6 percent for active prescription drug misuse, 27.8 percent for stabilized methadone therapy, and 23.4 percent for stabilized buprenorphine therapy. Female respondents perceived smaller losses because of active prescription misuse. Utility losses were 25.7 percent for spousal injection misuse and 20.7 percent for spousal prescription misuse, with no variation by sex.

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Professional Education and Policy Debate

“Abuse-Deterrent Opioid Formulations.” Journal of the American Medical Association 314(16):1744–45, doi:10.1001/jama.2015.12869.

This review describes opioid formulations, all of which are extended-release, that their labels claim to deter abuse: OxyContin, Embeda, Hysingla, Zohydro, and Targiniq.

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National Prescription Drug Abuse Summit Announces Name Change to Reflect Growing Heroin Epidemic in United States
Independent Online
October 27, 2015

The National Prescription Drug Abuse Summit changed its name to the National Prescription Drug Abuse and Heroin Summit. The 2016 Summit will add an educational track focused on heroin.

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K.A. Belendiuk, K.A. Babsonb, R. Vandrey, and M.O. Bonn–Miller. 2015. “Cannabis Species and Cannabinoid Concentration Preference Among Sleep-Disturbed Medicinal Cannabis Users.” Addictive Behaviors 50:178–81.

In a survey of 163 Californian adult purchasers recruited at a medical cannabis dispensary, 81 respondents said one reason they used cannabis was to manage insomnia, and 14 agreed that using cannabis reduced nightmares. Those using cannabis to manage nightmares preferred sativa to indica strains. Sativa users were less likely than indica users to screen positive for DSM–5 cannabis dependence. Individuals with current insomnia and greater sleep latency were more likely to report using strains of cannabis with significantly higher concentrations of cannabidiol, or CBD. Individuals who reported at least weekly use of sedatives used cannabis with lower tetrahydrocannabinol, or THC, concentrations than those who used sleep medications less frequently.

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J. Hudak and G. Wallack. “Ending The U.S. Government’s War on Medical Marijuana Research.” Center for Effective Public Management, Brookings, October 2015.

The authors of this think-tank policy paper urge the federal government to recognize the serious public policy risks associated with the limited medical, public health, and pharmaceutical research into cannabis and its use. They list federal policies that limit medical marijuana research and detail the consequences of those policies for the medical community and for public policy. They summarize proposals to address these challenges, concluding that some are meaningful and would make substantive changes that advance medical research, while others are narrow-sighted, misunderstood, and fail to provide the type of large-scale change necessary to achieve reformers’ desired goals. They conclude that rescheduling marijuana from a Schedule I drug has limited ability to advance constructive medical research. They instead recommend comprehensive policy reforms aimed at liberating the medical community to pursue research into marijuana.

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V. Wolff, I. Zinchenko, V. Quenardelle, O. Rouyer, and B. Geny. 2015. “Characteristics and Prognosis of Ischemic Stroke in Young Cannabis Users Compared With Cannabis Nonusers.” Journal of the American College of Cardiology 66(18):2052–53, doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2015.08.867.

A correlational study found that among 334 stroke victims under age 45, strokes were more often caused by narrowing of the arteries in the skull (stenosis) among the 58 victims who used marijuana than among non-users. Stenosis was the cause of stroke in 45 percent of marijuana users compared with only 14 percent of non-users. Possible reasons for the difference include that the marijuana users were more likely than non-users to smoke cigarettes, more likely to have other lifestyle risk factors, were younger, and more likely to be male. Blood clots that moved from other areas of the body to the brain were the most common cause of stroke (29 percent) in patients who did not use marijuana, compared with 14 percent in marijuana users.

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Public Policy Statement on Marijuana, Cannabinoids and Legalization
American Society of Addiction Medicine (ASAM)
Accessed October 29, 2015

The American Society of Addiction Medicine believes Americans must promote and adopt public policies that protect public health and safety as well as protect the integrity of the nation’s pharmaceutical approval process, which is grounded in well-designed and executed clinical research. They believe the legalization of cannabis in some states but not others provides a unique opportunity for a thorough investigation into the societal and public health impact of broader cannabis use. Such research is critical to inform other jurisdictions in how they can best protect and promote public health as they consider the legal status of marijuana use.

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Bernie Sanders Urges End to Federal Marijuana Ban
Jason Horowitz, New York Times
October 2, 2015

Vermont Senator and Democratic presidential candidate Bernie Sanders said the United States should remove the federal prohibition on marijuana and let states regulate marijuana sales as they do for alcohol and tobacco. Sanders proposes paying for substance use rehabilitation with revenue gained from a tax on marijuana.

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Pennsylvania Medical Society ‘Updates’ Position on Medicinal Marijuana
John George, Philadelphia Business Journal
October 26, 2015

The Pennsylvania Medical Society will ask the state to fund research on the use of marijuana for medical purposes. Noting that research has been hampered at the federal level, the organization called for state-funded trials of CBD oil to treat children with epileptic seizure disorders.

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Ohioans Reject Legalizing Marijuana
Alan Johnson, Columbus (Ohio) Dispatch
November 4, 2015

By almost 2-to-1, Ohioans this week voted down Issue 3, which would have legalized medicinal and recreational marijuana for those 21 and older in the state. Ohio would have been the first state to approve medicinal and recreational uses at the same time. Lawmakers in Columbus may still take up legislation to pave the way for medical marijuana, and proponents of Issue 3 said they will continue pushing to legalize marijuana use in Ohio.

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Pharmanet Data Used to Crack Down on Opioid Overprescription
CBC News
October 28, 2015

The British Columbia College of Physicians and Surgeons will work to stop the over-prescription of opioid pain relievers by focusing on individual doctors with high prescription rates rather than geographical hotspots. The deputy registrar for the college will use data from the provincial PharmaNet database to identify doctors with the highest prescription rates for drugs like fentanyl, oxycodone, morphine, and hydromorphone. The college will train doctors who are over-prescribing and do follow-up checks on them.

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Northeast/Mid-Atlantic News

Effective November 1, 2015: New Jersey Expands Scope of Prescription Monitoring Program
Jenna Shedd, Lawrence Tabas, and Erica Woebse, JD Supra
October 28, 2015

Effective Nov. 1, Senate Bill 1998 requires prescribers and pharmacists to register for the New Jersey Prescription Drug Monitoring Program (PDMP) and to consult the database before they prescribe a Schedule 2 controlled substance to a new patient, to a patient for acute and chronic pain, or to a patient who could reasonably be seeking the prescription for a reason besides the treatment of a medical condition. Pharmacists must report information to the PDMP no later than one day after dispensing a controlled substance. The Division of Civil Affairs will automatically enroll prescribers who renew their state registration to prescribe and dispense controlled substances. An online application allows physicians and pharmacists to access the PDMP via smartphones and tablets.

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Hassan Proposes Emergency Rules on Prescription Drugs
Josh McElveen, WMUR
October 27, 2015

New Hampshire Gov. Maggie Hassan is considering emergency rules regarding prescription pain relievers in light of the ongoing heroin epidemic in that state. She is circulating a draft of proposed rule changes on prescribing practices to the medical community. Ideas range from limiting opioid prescriptions to a 5-day supply to banning use of fentanyl for everyone except cancer patients. The emergency implementation would forgo normal public input and would stand for a period of 6 months until a more formal adoption process can be completed. According to the article, some think the governor is going too far too fast and the medical community needs to sign off on every step. (Includes video: 2 minutes 15 seconds)

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Overdose Antidote Available Statewide
David Templeton, Pittsburgh Post–Gazette
October 28, 2015

Pennsylvania Physician General Rachel Levine signed a standing order allowing willing pharmacies to dispense naloxone to anyone requesting it. Major pharmacies have already agreed to dispense the drug with the standing order kept on file as a legal prescription.

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Drug Addicts Taking Advantage of Easy Accessibility to Narcan
Tiffany Chan, WWLP
October 23, 2015

Massachusetts has stocked up on Narcan. Drug users are taking advantage of easy access to the opioid overdose antidote. According to the article, emergency medical technicians worry that some addicts will get as high as possible because they expect first responders to show up with Narcan to save them. (Includes video: 1 minute 19 seconds)

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New Details Emerge in Alleged Drug Abuse by Washington, D.C., Nurses
Bruce Leshan, WUSA
October 28, 2015

Six nurses are under investigation and two have had their licenses suspended by the District of Columbia Health Department after drug thefts at Sibley Hospital. One nurse repeatedly took narcotics from an automated dispensing machine in the emergency department. Investigators also tied her to missing lorazepam, Dilaudid and Percocet. Investigators accused a second nurse of withdrawing hydromorphone, diazepam, and lorazepam from the machine without a doctor’s order and twice withdrawing medications after the patient had left the emergency department. This nurse allegedly admitted to having resigned from Walter Reed National Military Medical Center while facing similar charges. She also allegedly admitted that she is addicted to pain relievers and is taking fentanyl and morphine.

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South News

Drug Firms Want West Virginia Supreme Court to Halt ‘Pill Mill’ Suit
Eric Eyre, West Virginia Gazette
October 26, 2015

Eleven of the nation’s largest prescription drug distributors have asked the West Virginia Supreme Court to stop a state lawsuit that accuses the companies of turning a blind eye to suspicious orders from so-called pill mill pharmacies. The drug firms argued that the state board of pharmacy has the power to sanction prescription drug wholesalers, but not the attorney general’s office, department of health and human resources, and department of military affairs and public safety—the three state agencies suing the companies. In their Supreme Court filing, the drug wholesalers said that the state cannot sue them for breaking pharmacy board rules under the West Virginia Consumer Credit and Protection Act because the drug shipments were not a “consumer transaction”—as required to prove a violation of the state’s consumer protection laws. The suit is scheduled to go to trial in October 2016, barring any intervention by the state supreme court.

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Heroin Use Explodes in Fayetteville in Wake of Painkiller Crackdown
Greg Barnes, Fayetteville (N.C.) Observer
October 25, 2015

Former addicts and experts in Fayetteville, N.C., said addiction begins with prescription pain medications, then broadens to include heroin. In 2012, Cape Fear Medical Center recorded 13 heroin overdoses. Through Oct. 7 of this year, the hospital reported 96 heroin overdoses. Medical professionals believe the increase is due to a government crackdown on prescription opioid misuse.

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Henrico County Parents Concerned Over Prescription Drug Abuse
Mark Tenia, WRIC
October 26, 2015

Parents at Godwin High School in Richmond, Va., asked IWINS (“I wish I never started.”) to educate parents, students, teachers, and coaches about the dangers of prescription drug misuse. (Includes video: 1 minute 58 seconds)

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Midwest News

Nine Workers Out at Iowa Prison Amid Widening Security Scandal
Des Moines (Iowa) Register
October 23, 2015

Nine employees resigned or have been fired as the result of security breaches at Anamosa State Penitentiary in Iowa. Four former tower guards were charged with smuggling cellphones and prescription drugs inside the prison. An associate, who did not work at the prison, also faces charges for supplying marijuana and prescription pills to guards and assisting in sneaking cellphones to an inmate. Authorities said the drugs were used by guards and it is unclear whether any reached inmates. Five more employees have departed as a result of the federal investigation. They are not charged with criminal activity, but the investigation found serious violations of work rules that relate to security practices.

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Kasich: Up to $1.5M for Drug Abuse Database
October 26, 2015

Ohio Gov. John Kasich announced that the state will provide up to $1.5 million annually for prescribers to integrate their computer systems with the Ohio Prescription Drug Monitoring Program. The funding will make a direct link to the system available, speeding up and streamlining the process.

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Increase in Drug Abuse, Death Prompts State Action Plan
Kathleen Gray, Detroit Free Press
October 26, 2015

A Michigan task force made 24 recommendations to address drug overdose deaths. Notable recommendations included closer scrutiny of Schedule 2 opioid prescribers; an update or replacement of Michigan’s automated prescription system; easier access to naloxone; and limited immunity for people when seeking medical assistance for themselves or others who are overdosing on drugs.

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Wisconsin Bill Designed to Combat Prescription Drug Abuse Approved by Senate Committee
October 28, 2015

The Wisconsin senate’s judiciary committee approved a bill that would require police officers who find an opiate prescription at an overdose scene to enter it into the prescription drug monitoring program database. Other proposals would require opiate dispensers to enter prescriptions into the database within 24 hours, methadone and pain clinics to register with the state, and treatment programs using methadone to report the number of people receiving the medication annually to the state. All four bills are now ready for a vote in either the state assembly or senate.

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CDC in Ohio to Study Fentanyl and Heroin-Related Deaths
Mike Bowersock, NBC4i
October 28, 2015

Experts from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention traveled to Ohio to study heroin-fentanyl and heroin-related deaths. A team of seven people are interviewing heroin users and researching data in Portsmouth, Dayton, Cincinnati, and Cleveland. The team will review reports from the morgue and follow up with coroners.

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Kids to Be Trained in OD Reversal Drug
Terry DeMio, Telegraph–Forum
October 26, 2015

The Bullitt Opioid Addiction Team, based in Shepherdsville, Ky., plans to teach children how to use naloxone. A company that makes a naloxone-administering device similar to the Epi-pen has donated kits for the November training. In May 2014, nine kids, ages 13–17, were trained at Mentoring Plus of northern Kentucky by Northern Kentucky People Advocating Recovery. The organization provided 10 weeks of lessons about drugs.

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West News

CSPD Equips Officers With Narcotics Antidote
Pam Zubeck, Colorado Springs Independent
October 23, 2015

The Colorado Springs Police Department will become the first police department in Colorado to equip police officers with naloxone.

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Other Resources

[Video] Rx to Die For
Thomas Nash Productions
Accessed October 27, 2015

In this documentary, doctors and addiction treatment specialists discuss how prescription drugs can affect individuals, families, and friends. They said legal drugs and many over-the-counter medications can be just as deadly as illegal drugs. (Duration: 22:26 minutes)


Grant Awards

MDHHS Awards More Than $1 Million to Health Projects
Aaron Boehm, WLUC
October 26, 2015

As 1 of 41 Michigan Department of Health and Human Services Health Innovation Grant winners, the Inter-Tribal Council of Michigan in Gogebic County will receive $28,559 to build clinic capacity to address and prevent prescription drug misuse.

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Healthy Lincoln County Receives Grant for $125,000 a Year for Youth Substance Use Prevention
Boothbay Register
October 26, 2015

Healthy Lincoln County, Maine, was awarded a $125,000 federal grant to prevent youth substance misuse in Lincoln County communities.

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Grant Announcements

Partnership for Clean Competition
Pre-applications due November 1, 2015
Full applications due December 1, 2015

NIDA Translational Avant-Garde Award for Development of Medication to Treat Substance Use Disorders
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health
Deadline: December 3, 2015

NJHI 2016: Building a Culture of Health in New Jersey—Communities Moving to Action, Round 2
Robert Wood Johnson Foundation
Deadline: January 14, 2016

Take-Back Events and Drop Boxes

Illinois Exchange: County Drug Take-Backs Targeting Prescription Drug, Heroin Addictions
Hannah Prokop, Northwest Herald (Illinois)
October 28, 2015

Medication Take Back Day Scheduled in Putnam
Kathy Reakes, Putnam (N.Y.) Daily Voice
October 27, 2015

Authorities Dispose of Prescriptions
Indiana (Pa.) Gazette
October 28, 2015,23007860/

Roundup Encourages Disposal of Unused Medications
Battlefords News–Optimist (Saskatchewan, Canada)
October 28, 2015

Upcoming Conferences and Workshops

2015 Fall Research Conference: The Golden Age of Evidence-Based Policy
Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management
November 12–14, 2015
Miami, Florida


28th Annual National Prevention Network Conference: Bridging Research to Practice
National Prevention Network
November 17–19, 2015
Seattle, Washington


University of Michigan Injury Center Prescription Drug Overdose Summit
University of Michigan Injury Center
December 1, 2015
Ann Arbor, Michigan

Ensuring Access to Pain Care: Engaging Pain Medicine and Primary Care Teams
American Academy of Pain Medicine (AAPM)
February 18–21, 2016
Palm Springs, California

2016 National Rx Drug Abuse & Heroin Summit
March 28–31, 2016
Atlanta, Georgia
The Weekly Update is a service provided by the SAMHSA Preventing Prescription Abuse in the Workplace Technical Assistance Center (PAW) to keep the field abreast of recent news and journal articles to assist in forming policy, research, and programs to reduce prescription drug misuse or abuse. Please note, the materials listed are not reflective of SAMHSA's or PAW's viewpoint or opinion and are not assessed for validity, reliability or quality. The Weekly Update should not be considered an endorsement of the findings. Readers are cautioned not to act on the results of single studies, but rather to seek bodies of evidence. Copyright considerations prevent PAW from providing full text of journal articles listed in the Weekly Update.